Investors and Treaty Traders

The Basics

 

TREATY TRADERS (E-1)
An E-1 Treaty Trader is a foreign national who works for a foreign company and is conducting substantial business in the U.S. There must be a treaty between the United States and the County of the foreign trader. (see tables below) At least 50% of the ownership or control of the trading enterprise must by nationals of the foreign country of the trader. Each employee or principal of the company seeking E-status must be a citizen of the treaty country. The foreign company must be engaged in substantial trade principally with the U.S.


TREATY INVESTORS (E-2)
E-2 Treaty-Investors make active, substantial investments in the United States. There must be a treaty between the United States and the County of the foreign investor. (see tables below) At least 50% of the ownership or control of the trading enterprise must by nationals of the foreign country of the investor. Each principal investor and employee or principal of the investing enterprise must be a citizen of the treaty country. The foreign investor must make an irrevocable, active, substantial investment in the United States which creates jobs for U.S. workers. The individual(s) covered by the E visa must play a key role in developing or directing the investment. There is no specific, minimum investment amount, but it must be "substantial" and must sufficiently capitalize the U.S. enterprise so that it is viable.

 

Bilateral Trade and Investment Treaties

(Between the United States and other countries)


TREATY TRADER COUNTRIES (E-1)
Argentina | Australia | Austria | Belgium | Bolivia | Brunei | Canada | China (ROC) Colombia | Costa Rica | Denmark | Estonia | Ethiopia | Finland | France | Germany Greece | Honduras | Iran | Ireland | Israel | Italy | Japan | Korea | Latvia | Liberia Luxembourg | Mexico | Netherlands | Norway | Oman | Pakistan | Philippines | Spain Suriname | Sweden | Switzerland | Thailand | Togo | Turkey | U.K. | Yugoslavia

TREATY INVESTOR COUNTRIES (E-2)
Argentina | Armenia | Australia | Austria | Bangladesh | Belarus | Belgium Bosnia-Herzegovina | Bulgaria | Cameroon | Canada | China (ROC) Colombia | Congo | Costa Rica | Czech Republic | Ecuador | Egypt | Estonia Ethiopia | Finland | France | Georgia | Germany | Grenada | Honduras | Iran Ireland | Italy | Jamaica | Japan | Kazakhstan | Korea | Kyrgyzstan | Latvia Liberia | Luxembourg | Mexico | Morocco | Moldavia | Mongolia | Netherlands | Norway | Oman | Pakistan | Panama | Philippines | Poland Romania | Senegal | Slovak Republic | Spain | Senegal | Sri Lanka | Suriname Switzerland | Sweden | Thailand | Togo | Trinidad-Tobago | Tunisia | Turkey U.K. | Ukraine | Uzbekistan | Yugoslavia